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CERAMIC BLOCK MAGNETS: MAGNETISM and CIRCLE PACKING
  1.magnadur
  2.magnadur - like safe ceramic block magnet brunel 01 university magnetic coin robin linhope willson
  3.magnadur - like safe ceramic block magnet partial leviation magnetic coin robin linhope willson penny
  4.magnadur - like safe ceramic block magnet veit elser 14 circle lacking magnetic coin robin linhope willson
  5.magnadur - like safe ceramic block  magnet levitating diamond 36 magnetic coins robin linhope willson
  6.magnadur - like safe ceramic block  magnet edinburgh02 blow spinning penny coin robin linhope willson
  7.magnadur - like safe ceramic block  magnet magic roundabout magnetic penny coin robin linhope willson
  8.magnadur - like safe ceramic block  magnet tyne bridge 01 magnetic coin rolling robin linhope willson
 9a.magnadur - like safe ceramic block  magnet great egg balance magic penny robin linhope willson
 9b.magnadur - like safe ceramic block  magnet great egg balance magic penny robin linhope willson

12 ORIGINAL STEM EXPERIMENTS with PROTECTED CERAMIC BLOCK MAGNETS


MAGNETIC and PACKING PROPERTIES of STEEL and NICKEL DISCS
using COINS, STEEL WASHERS and PAPER CLIPS

CONCLUSIONS of RESEARCH 1993-2015

CERAMIC BLOCK MAGNETS ( magnadur - like, but suitably protected ) :

a) are of much greater educational value than traditional steel bar, or horseshoe, magnets
b) are much safer and more economical than the new rare-earth "neo" magnets
c) enable investigation, at both primary and advanced levels, of magnetic fields and the different magnetic behaviour of discs of iron and nickel and different alloys as well as more traditional magnetic effects
d) are of great scientific value but also very versatile, robust and great fun.
e) are at last becoming appreciated as a valuable, but inexpensive, safe educational tool.

ORIGINAL EXPERIMENT DEMONSTRATIONS CREATED 1993 - 2015
with experiment number and page in 4th (2014) Edition of "Investigating Magnetism" (IM)
These experiments are additional to the traditional experiments
with magnets in general as shown in textbooks.


  a) CONTACT INTERACTIONS
      (MAGNET and DISC in DIRECT CONTACT or separated by solid non-magnetic material)

    1. ROLLING of SINGLE DISC with magnet on opposite side of surface (IM24 p32

    2. ROLLING of a VERTCIAL HANGING CHAIN of DISCS (GEARS) (IM24 p32)

    3. ROLLING (PARTIAL) of ADJACENT DISCS in HORIZONTAL CHAIN (ELASTIC BEHAVIOUR)
          (IM30 p39.)
    4. STACKING DISCS ON RIMS or HANGING in GEOMETRICAL SYMMETRICAL or IRREGULAR
          ARRAYS (IM31 p34)
    5. STACKING DISCS ON RIMS in PARTIALLY LEVITATING ARRAY (IM31 p34)

    6. BLOW SPINNING of HANGING DISC (IM27 p36)

  b) REMOTE INTERACTIONS   (AIR-SPACE BETWEEN MAGNETS AND DISCS)

    7. REMOTE ROLLING of MAGNETIC DISCS along or under a RIM, ROD, STRIP
        or SURFACE of ferro-magnetic material (IM33 p44 and IM35,36,37 p48-51)

    8. REMOTE ROLLING of MAGNETIC DISCS along or under a SLOPING RIM, ROD, STRIP
        or SURFACE of ferro-magnetic material with DISC MOVING AWAY FROM MAGNET (IM34 p46)

    9. MAGNETISM-GRAVITY BALANCING of MULTIPLE MAGNETIC DISCS ON FLAT
        and CURVED NON-MAGNETIC SURFACES with MAGNETS situated only remotely above
        (with application to other objects and shapes eg steel washers, paper clips, nuts and balls)
        (IM38-41 p52-59)

    10. BLOW SPINNING of SINGLE DISCS SITTING on THEIR RIMS
        with MAGNETS situated only remotely above. (IM38,39 p52-55)

    11. BLOW SPINNING of a SITTING ARRAY of DISCS
        with MAGNETS situated only remotely above (IM39 p55)

  c) MOTORS

    12. CONSTRUCTION of SINGLE and TWIN HOMOPOLAR MOTORS
    9c. blowspinning 1 US 1943 cent robin linhope willson          10. blowspinning 1 US 1943 cent robin linhope willson          11. blowspinning 1 US 1943 cent robin linhope willson          12. blowspinning 1 US 1943 cent robin linhope willson
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